Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

Dunchee's 英語Q&A!forum/englishclassroomdunchee


Monday, March 16, 2020

pushdown wh-element

You can do whatever you think is right.

The Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (查 pushdown wh-element)
The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language
Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English

The Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language 第1050頁 (pdf, 531)

[d] If the subject of the that-clause is a pushdown wh-element  (cf.11.18) and is therefore moved to  the  front of  the superordinate clause, the subordinator that must be omitted, perhaps  to prevent that being initially misinterpreted  as subject  of the following verb:
 Who did she hope would be the winner?  [1]
*Who did she hope that would be the winner?  [1a]
 They  pointed out the damage which they supposed had been done by last night's storm.  [2]
*They pointed out  the damage which they supposed that had been done by  last night's storm.  [2a]
Contrast [1b]  with [1]  and [1a]:
Who did she hope (that) that would be?  [1b]
In [1b], the second that is  indeed  the subject of the that-clause; who  is the subject complement and  therefore the subordinator that may be optionally retained, the presence of a subject that before the verb preventing misinterpretation.
    Here are several other examples of optional that when the wh-element  is not the subject and hence a subject appears before the verb in the that-clause:
Who do you expect (that) they have chosen?
She told me how she thought (that) the machine worked.
They mentioned the name of the men (who) they knew (that) you had spoken to.

who they say

Studies in Grammar - Page 115
Mabel Clare Hermans - 1924 - ‎Snippet view - ‎More editions
.... In this sentence, "He is the man who they say will be elected", we see that the main thought is "He is the man who will be elected." In addition there is the clause, " they say," which has been inserted and is not dependent upon the independent clause. In other words, it is neither an independent clause nor a dependent clause. It has been thrown into the sentence and is called a parenthetical clause. The relation of the parenthetical clause to the rest of the sentence is shown in this way:

You will see that the complex sentence is complete without these words, but since they are expressed, we ...

Who Versus Whom--Advanced

Saturday, October 26, 2019



A HERO BORN -- Legends of the Condor Heroes #1

Saturday, June 29, 2019

Do not what?

A friend went to an Asian supermarket and saw this:

Saturday, December 8, 2018

No Substitute

I'm not a fast-food junkie, but I do enjoy going to one of those joints once in a while. Tonight, I stopped at a Burger King for a quick bite. After hearing a brief greeting from the girl behind the counter, I placed my order:
"Hi. Can I have a number one meal?"
"Do you want cheese on it?"
"No. Can I substitute fries with a small chili?"
"No, we don't do that."
"Oh, then I'll order it separately."
"Wait," she waved to a girl near the kitchen and asked "Janet, can we substitute the fries with chili?"
"No," she said to me after the other girl shook her head.
"That's fine. I'll order it separately. I'll have a Whopper sandwich..."
"Do you still want your number one meal?"
"No, forget that. I'll have a Whopper sandwich, a small chili, and a small drink."
I don't know what's going on, but we used to be able to do that. I'm guessing the girl was new and she thought by my saying "substitute" it meant I could get a small chili with the same amount of money. If she were smart enough, she could just say it'd be more money if she did that. Anyway, at least she spoke English(*1) and there was no problem communicating with her.

(*1) Yeah, a while back it's all "new immigrants" and it was difficult to talk with them....