Saturday, July 31, 2010

on/in a/the mountain/s; neither nor

Q: About in/on usage ....
on a mountain
on the mountain
on the mountains
on mountains
in a mountain
in the mountain
in the mountains
in mountains

("Unlikely but possible. I spent my holiday in a cave or a pothole" <-- 這個很好笑 )

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Neither a, b nor c is ...
http://groups.google.com/group/alt.usage.english/browse_thread/thread/a096dc0ad36e2670/9c25e63a9289d474

拖鞋,涼鞋,和夾腳鞋的英文說法

<<以前的一篇舊文>>

拖鞋和涼鞋的英文是什麼呢?以前在學校學的是slippers和sandals。讓我們來看看西方人眼中的slippers和sandals長什麼樣子。

1.slippers (圖1)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Slippers.jpg




2.sandals (圖2)


”什麼?那是sandals喔?sandals不是涼鞋嗎?啊這可以說成flip-flops嗎?”
”slippers長那樣喔?毛絨絨的出去走一次不是就髒了?”

首先我們看看這幾個英文字的定義(*1)是什麼,然後再加以說明:

flip-flop:
A backless, often foam rubber sandal held to the foot at the big toe by means of a thong.

”thong”在這裡指的是那個『人』字形的帶子,整句就是指夾腳鞋。

slipper:
- A low shoe that can be slipped on and off easily and usually worn indoors.

重點是這是室內穿的(indoors),所以可以保有一般『鞋子』的形狀。

sandal:
1.A shoe consisting of a sole fastened to the foot by thongs or straps.

啊,這部份就是我們的拖鞋啦,包含夾腳鞋和一般寬帶狀的拖鞋。
2.A low-cut shoe fastened to the foot by an ankle strap.
這就是我們一般知道的涼鞋。
3.A rubber overshoe cut very low and covering little more than the sole of the shoe.
(一種鞋套,這部份先不管)
4.A strap or band for fastening a low shoe or slipper on the foot.
(這部份先不管)


由這幾個定義來看,sandals算是通稱,只要是鞋面是open的,不是整個蓋住的都算,所以涼鞋啦,拖鞋啦,都是sandals。slippers主要是在室內使用,是穿舒服的,所以在設計上會出現和我們常見的不一樣的設計(在西方人士家裡,千萬不要把slippers穿出室外)。至於flip-flops,最早主要是去海灘時穿的便鞋,因為普及的關係現在很多年輕人也穿到比如mall這類的一般場所去逛大街。flip-flops主要是英美的說法,在其他國家或是區域有不同的說法,比如在澳洲是thongs,南非的話是thongs或是slops,在紐西蘭是jandals,在夏威夷則是 slippers(我猜是因為那裡的日本人口的關係)。

那麼那種寬帶狀的『拖鞋』可不可以也叫作flip-flops? 當然也可以,只是那種人字形的仍是佔大宗,在店裡賣flip-flops這區(或這一擺架)比較少看到(較少和寬帶狀鞋混在在一起。寬帶狀的鞋一般有自己的一區/擺架),其他的話就是在一般的 (casual) sandals區裡較常看到。若要特別標明這是『人』字形的flip-flops以方便和寬帶狀的加以區分時,可以說thong flip-flops,要正式一點的話可以寫thong sandals。

至於我們所處的東南亞,拖鞋啦,夾腳鞋 啦,slippers,flip-flops或是sandals在許多場合這些說法混用的話其實也不傷大雅(當然囉,這主要是顧慮到我們這邊的文化和生活習慣), 只是對於不熟悉這情形的外國人來說,該講sandals時還是不要講slippers免得搞混。至於那些在台灣住了很久,已經入境隨俗的老外來說,他們也該聽得懂中文的『拖鞋』了吧!

(*1) 我忘了是查那本英英字典,如果我沒有記錯,應該是以下其中的一個(或是混合)
www.m-w.com
www.dictionary.com

Thursday, July 29, 2010

had been raining / had been doing ... when ; grammar books for kids (USA)

past perfect progressive
"it had been raining"="it stopped raining"?
http://groups.google.com/group/alt.usage.english/browse_thread/thread/85452a6d6a8f0341/d3ea1fb91441063b

was/had been studying ...
http://groups.google.com/group/alt.usage.english/browse_thread/thread/70b5d1c3b636aaee/a49992deb8f5d639
(Note: "had been" version implies ... stopped -> "Not necessarily". This interpretation (kinda) matches M.S.'s in "Practical English Usage") 

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Past Perfect Continuous
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/pastperfectcontinuous.html
......
He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a period of time. It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had just finished.
.....

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(Azar)
past progressive vs past perfect progressive
http://thegrammarexchange.infopop.cc/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/340600179/m/1991024044
2. .. had been doing ... when ....
(In the second sentence of your posting ..... may or may not have continued afterwards.)



Targeting Grammar Grades 5-6
http://books.google.com/books?id=KNGjtJXsspMC&pg=PA82
http://www.amazon.com/Targeting-Grammar-Teacher-Created-Resources/dp/1420624377/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1280439509&sr=1-1

Grammar Practice for Grades 3-4
http://www.amazon.com/Grammar-Practice-Grades-Peter-Clutterbuck/dp/0743936213/ref=pd_cp_b_1

----------------------------------------
Grammar and Punctuation 一系列,從Grade 1-6
今天在逛書局時突然瞄到的。兒童書區一般我都是直接走過,這次碰巧看到,好奇之下我拿來翻一翻。怎麼說呢,我的第一個念頭是「這會是很好的教材」,對象的話... 小學生... or 大一點的也可以,甚至是成人也可以,只是接受度....
(我讀了Customer Reviews. 很多是家長買來homeschooling用的)

Wednesday, July 21, 2010

KK; TOEFL eRater 托福作文評分

A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English [Hardcover]http://www.amazon.com/Pronouncing-Dictionary-American-English/dp/0877790477/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1279758258&sr=1-1
(KK音標出處)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronunciation_respelling_for_English#Traditional_respelling_systems


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How are the Writing and Speaking sections graded?

http://www.pearsonlongman.com/ae/marketing/toeflibt/faq_nextgenibt.html#question9
or
http://ppt.cc/zWnI

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http://www.ets.org/toefl/ibt/scores/understand
(Writing Section -> 4. eRater® automated scoring technology is ....)
(and a link to "See the TOEFL iBT Writing Section Scoring Guide (PDF)")

托福作文評分 E-Rater
http://tw.myblog.yahoo.com/so-fun/article?mid=1283&prev=1284&next=1282

www.cgsnet.org/portals/0/pdf/mtg_sm09Pruner.pdf
(From ETS, slides, E-Rater)

Sunday, July 18, 2010

Subjunctive; what is or what are


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what is or what are
http://groups.google.com/group/alt.usage.english/browse_thread/thread/806d0bfd097c7bc2/bb8be0fa56a0f324

Friday, July 16, 2010

學英文的人很想做到的...

How to Learn Perfect English As a Native English Speaker
第一點就是"Read, read, read!" 這不是三個禮拜五個月就可以達成的。Read!


另一個:
How to Avoid Colloquial (Informal) Writing

"I don't know nothing"; "You don't drive like her"

 I don't know nothing
http://www.englishforums.com/English/IDontKnowNothing/mvmdv/post.htm


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You don't drive like her...

Sunday, July 4, 2010

掛國旗

<<我以前的一篇舊文>>

明天是美國國慶,我的房東and/or室友為此去買了個掛旗子用的底架來替換已經拿掉的舊的,然後我幫忙把這底架用螺絲鎖在大門邊的牆上。
小 時候在我桃園的老家那條街上每逢國定假日整條街的住戶門前都會掛國旗,很大隻的那種。因為常掛,所以我以為這是再自然不過的事,至於這是因為我家有個里 長,有他在督促輔導,還是有「其它原因」,這我就無從得知。我只知道「一個時期」之後我老家那條街沒人再做這檔事了,而我家的里長也去世些年,所以是因為 沒人督導,還是因為「另一重要人物」也去世,所以大家終於有膽子不再當「傻子」我就不知道了。
美國這邊遇到國慶掛國旗的人家比例我沒去刻意 算過,也許百分之十左右吧,不過可以肯定的是會掛國旗的是出於真心自願的,而不是被逼或是半脅迫...